Certain images were known to represent idols, and when found on different utensils may indicate that they are used for avoda zara. The Mishna on today’s daf teaches that when someone finds utensils that have on them images of the sun, the moon or a derakon, they must be cast into the Dead Sea. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel distinguishes between important utensils, which can be assumed to be used for idol worship, and simple utensils – like pots and pans – that are permitted even if they have such images on them.
In his Commentary to the Mishna, the Rambam explains that the references to the sun and the moon do not relate to simple drawings of these heavenly bodies, but rather they refer to a Zodiac wheel like one prepared by astrologers, that gives a form to each of the signs of the Zodiac, with a figure representing the sun in the middle.
With regard to the derakon, many different interpretations are put forward. The Ra’avad explains that it is a snake, and because of the visceral fear that many people have towards snakes, it was worshiped as a god by many. The Arukh agrees, saying that it is a snake that is uniquely large and that possesses keen eyesight. In his Commentary to the Mishna, the Rambam suggests that this refers to a drawing of one of the constellations, and it is considered avoda zara like any other star worship.
The Rabbeinu Yehonatan of Lunel describes the derakon as a snake-like creature with wings that belches smoke and fire from its throat – what we would call a dragon. A dragon is a mythical creature that has the body of a large snake, which is why the term derakon is often used in Greek – and by the Sages – to refer to a simple snake. In many religions dragons were used to represent the power of the gods, and, in many cases, to represent the god itself.